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Myron Suvorov
Myron Suvorov

Physics Editor Full [PORTABLE] Crack Idm


Experimental Mathematics publishes original papers featuring formal results inspired by experimentation, conjectures suggested by experiments, and data supporting significant hypotheses. Experiment has always been, and increasingly is, an important method of mathematical discovery. (Gauss declared that his way of arriving at mathematical truths was "through systematic experimentation.") Yet this tends to be concealed by the tradition of presenting only elegant, fully developed, and rigorous results.




physics editor full crack idm


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A team from the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV) and the Politecnico di Milano has designed new ultra-resistant and self-repairing concrete materials. They have 30% more durability compared to conventional high-performance concrete in cracking situations. In the event of a crack, it is able to repair itself automatically thanks to the application of self-repairing techniques. googletag.cmd.push(function() googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); ); "These properties are possible mainly thanks to the design of the mixture and the use of components such as crystalline additives, alumina nanofibers and cellulose nanocrystals, which are capable of improving the ability of the material to repair itself", says Pedro Serna, researcher of the Institute of Concrete Science and Technology (ICITECH) of the Universitat Politècnica de València.Another advantage of these new cementitious materials is the reduction of both ordinary and extraordinary maintenance work, being able to exceed the usual limits (50 years) of current design codes. As regards their applications, they are especially suitable for infrastructures subjected to extremely aggressive environments, such as constructions located in or near the sea, and for geothermal power plants as well."In this project we are demonstrating how the durability of cementitious materials becomes a characteristic that can be designed through the synergy between the composition of the material and the structural conception. We have designed and are testing new cementitious compounds with the capacity for structural self-repair in the cracking phase, which is the usual state faced by a reinforced concrete structure", points out Marta Roig Flores, researcher at ICITECH. Credit: Universitat Politècnica de València In this way, ResHEALience represents a change from the concept of durability of the material understood as passive protection against external aggressions to an "active" vision of the same.Tested in six large-scale pilot structuresIn the validation phase, the ultra-high-strength cementitious compounds developed in the project have been used to build six large-scale pilot structures that are currently being analyzed under real structural operating conditions. Two of them are in the Valencian Community (a float designed for floating wind towers, built in collaboration with Rover Maritime and the UPV, which is installed in the port of Sagunt, and a raft for mussels installed in the port of València by the Valencian company DRC), plus two in Italy, one in Ireland and one in Malta.These structures are constantly monitored with UPV technology, specifically, by means of an extensive network of sensors supervised by a team from the IDM Institute, which makes it possible to verify their performance over time. It is a self-contained sensor system, configured like an electronic tongue, that provides real-time and continuous information on the durability of the structure. In addition, it helps pinpoint the risk of corrosion and the presence of aggressive agents that can affect structures. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle []).push(); "These data allow the experts in the field to verify the good condition of the structures, or, as the case may be, to adopt the necessary measures to prevent the damage from worsening, by using the most appropriate, economical, and less affected method of protection or repair on the operation of the structure", explains Juan Soto, a researcher at the IDM Institute (Universitat Politècnica de València). Provided byUniversitat Politècnica de València


Abstract:Reinforced concrete elements frequently suffer small cracks that are not relevant from the mechanical point of view, but they can be an entrance point for aggressive agents, such as oxygen, which could initiate the degradation processes. Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and especially Ultra High Performance Concrete increase the multi-cracking behavior, reducing the crack width and spacing. In this work, the oxygen availability of three types of concrete was compared at similar strain levels to evaluate the benefit of multi-cracking in the transport of oxygen. The types of concrete studied include traditional, High-Performance, and Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with and without nanofibers. To this purpose, reinforced concrete beams sized 150 100 750 mm3 were prepared with embedded stainless steel sensors that were located at three heights, which have also been validated through this work. These beams were pre-cracked in bending up to fixed strain levels. The results indicate that the sensors used were able to detect oxygen availability due to the presence of cracks and the detected differences between the studied concretes. Ultra High Performance Concrete in the cracked state displayed lower oxygen availability than the uncracked High Performance Concrete, demonstrating its potential higher durability, even when working in cracked state, thanks to the increased multi-cracking response.Keywords: UHPFRC; fibers; multi-cracking; air permeability; oxygen; stainless steel sensor; voltammetry


The Kid A artwork and packaging was created by Yorke with Stanley Donwood, who has worked with Radiohead since their 1994 EP My Iron Lung.[69] Donwood painted on large canvases with knives and sticks, then photographed the paintings and manipulated them with Photoshop.[70] While working on the artwork, Yorke and Donwood became "obsessed" with the Worldwatch Institute website, which was full of "scary statistics about ice caps melting, and weather patterns changing"; this inspired them to use an image of a mountain range as the cover art.[71] Donwood said he saw the mountains as "some sort of cataclysmic power".[72]


Donwood was inspired by a photograph taken during the Kosovo War depicting a square metre of snow full of the "detritus of war", such as military equipment and cigarette stains. He said: "I was upset by it in a way war had never upset me before. It felt like it was happening in my street."[70] The red swimming pool on the album spine and disc was inspired by the 1988 graphic novel Brought to Light by Alan Moore and Bill Sienkiewicz, in which the number of people killed by state terrorism is measured in swimming pools filled with blood. Donwood said this image "haunted" him during the recording of the album, calling it "a symbol of looming danger and shattered expectations".[73] Yorke and Donwood cited a Paris exhibition of paintings by David Hockney as another influence.[74]


Several critics felt Kid A was pretentious or deliberately obscure. The Irish Times bemoaned the lack of conventional song structures and panned the album as "deliberately abstruse, wilfully esoteric and wantonly unfathomable ... The only thing challenging about Kid A is the very real challenge to your attention span."[117] In the New Yorker, the novelist Nick Hornby wrote that it was "morbid proof that this sort of self-indulgence results in a weird kind of anonymity rather than something distinctive and original".[120] The Melody Maker critic Mark Beaumont called it "tubby, ostentatious, self-congratulatory, look-ma-I-can-suck-my-own-cock whiny old rubbish ... About 60 songs were started that no one had a bloody clue how to finish."[111] Alexis Petridis of The Guardian described it as "self-consciously awkward and bloody-minded, the noise made by a band trying so hard to make a 'difficult' album that they felt it beneath them to write any songs".[105] Rolling Stone published a piece by Michael Krugman and Jason Cohen mocking Kid A as humourless, derivative and lacking in songs. They wrote: "Because it was decided that Radiohead were Important and Significant last time around, no one can accept the album as the crackpot art project it so obviously is."[121]


The formulation of the previous publication by Prajapati et al. [11] serves as a model for the description of brittle-anisotropic crack development. Here, the critical energy release rate is directionally dependent. Alternative approaches for anisotropic crack growth are based on multiplying the divergence term of the evolution equation of the crack phase field with an anisotropy tensor, resulting in a directional dependency (see, e.g., [12,13,14]). In the context of gradient energy, however, the physical representation of such an anisotropy tensor is still unclear [14].


When choosing a possible ductile crack model, various approaches are available, which are briefly summarised below. The model of Duda et al. [15] was one of the first models to integrate plasticity into a phase-field crack model, so as to simulate brittle fractures in plastic materials. Some important phenomenological characteristics of ductile fracture, reported in experimental literature, could be reproduced in Ambati et al. [16] by coupling the degradation function with the plastic strain state. In Ambati et al. [17], the model was extended to finite strains. In the context of thermoplasticity, a thermodynamically consistent phase-field crack model for brittle to ductile fractures is introduced in Miehe et al. [18] at large deformations. As an extension to this, they also worked on porous-isotropic plasticity in Miehe et al. [19]. In Kuhn et al. [20], an elastoplastic phase-field fracture model, where a monolithic solution is possible, is proposed. In Miehe et al. [21], gradient plasticity is used at finite strains in order to model ductile fracture in a variational-based phase-field framework. In a recently published book article Alessi et al. [6], prominent phase-field models for ductile crack growth are compared, and a study of their predictive capabilities is conducted.


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